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Learning and Teaching

(Usage hints for this presentation)

Computer Structures and Operating Systems 2018
Dr. Jens Lechtenbörger (License Information)

DBIS Group
Prof. Dr. Gottfried Vossen
Chair for Computer Science
Dept. of Information Systems
WWU Münster, Germany

Introduction

Introductory Activity

  1. Think of something you are really good at
    • Write it down (won’t be shared with anyone)
  2. Briefly describe how you got to be good at that thing
    • One or two words
  3. Submit how you got to be good at Pingo (pingo.upb.de → 727827) qr-pingo-csos2018.png

(Source of activity: [SEI14])

Brain ≈ Muscle

  • Learning involves brain’s long term memory

    Teacher explains brain

    Image” under CC0 1.0; converted from Pixabay

  • Long term memory needs repeated retrieval and practice
    • Spaced out over time
    • Effect: Changes in brain’s proteins
  • (Learning does not happen [solely] in lectures)

Deliberate Practice

Characteristics of Deliberate Practice to acquire expert skills ([Eri08], see also [EKT93],[SEI14])

  1. Task with well-defined goal
  2. Individual motivated to improve
  3. Feedback on current performance
  4. Ample opportunities for repetition and gradual refinements

(Traditional lecturing is “teaching by telling”, does not share any characteristic of Deliberate Practice)

Active Learning

  • Active Learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics ([FEM+14])
    • Active Learning is an umbrella term for diverse interventions
      • Group problem-solving
      • Worksheets or tutorials completed during class
      • Use of personal response systems with or without peer instruction
      • Studio or workshop course designs
    • Notice: Above interventions share at least 3 of the 4 characteristics of Deliberate Practice
      • (Motivation may increase, but ultimately rests with you)

Quotes from Experts

  • [SR17]: “Saying Goodbye to Lectures in Medical School—Paradigm Shift or Passing Fad?”
    • “60 slides in 45 minutes may seem like an efficient way to teach, but it is unlikely to be an effective way to learn”

Research on Motivation

Self-Regulation

  • “Self-regulation is the process by which people change their beliefs and actions in the pursuit of their goals”
    • What are your goals?
  • Self-regulation “is known to support achievement in academic settings”
    • When and how do you plan to engage with course content?

(Source: [KC17])

Goals

  • Individuals strive for different classes of achievement goals: mastery vs performance
    • Mastery (or learning) goals
      • Desire to develop understanding, improve skills
      • Belief that higher effort leads to better outcome
      • “I belong here”
    • Performance goals
      • Performance-approach goals
        • Focus on positive outcomes, desire to perform better than others, paired with public recognition
        • Positive effect on graded performance
      • Performance-avoidance goals
        • Grounded in fear of failure, low competency expectancies
        • Negative effect on graded performance

(Source: [Ame92],[EC97])

Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII)

  • Two complementary self-regulation strategies
    1. Mental Contrasting (MC)
      • Goal commit and goal striving
      • Elaborate on positive outcomes of goals and potential obstacles
    2. Implementation Intentions (II)
      • Plan how to overcome obstacles
      • Create if-then plans, in particular for
        1. getting started and
        2. staying on track

(Source: [KC17])

MCII Intervention

  • MCII as online survey in Learnweb
    • Your participation serves as exercise in self-regulation.
    • Studies demonstrate more successful goal pursuit after MCII interventions in various settings ([KC17],[DGL+11]).
  • That survey is a precondition for access to material in Learnweb.
    • We review your responses to ensure “serious” answers.
      • Your answers do not have any influence on our grading!
    • We plan to repeat such surveys.

CSOS Instruction

CS: Flipped/Inverted Classroom with Projects

  • Videos instead of lectures
    • To be watched ahead of class meetings
    • Your pace based on your individual background and preferences
  • Projects to build computer from individual logical gates
    • Self-study
  • Lectures to discuss questions and work on exercises

(Scientific background: [LPT00],[BV13])

OS: Just-In-Time Teaching

  • Book and presentations with audio instead of lectures
    • To be worked through ahead of class meetings
  • Presentations contain exercises and assignments
    • To be submitted in Learnweb ahead of class meetings
    • Initiate feedback cycle out-of-class for more effective use of valuable in-class time

(Scientific background: [NPG+99],[Nov18],[MSN16])

Bibliography

License Information

This document is part of an Open Educational Resource (OER) course on Operating Systems. Source code and source files are available on GitLab under free licenses.

Except where otherwise noted, this work, “Learning and Teaching”, is © 2018 by Jens Lechtenbörger, published under the Creative Commons license CC BY-SA 4.0.

No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use.

In particular, trademark rights are not licensed under this license. Thus, rights concerning third party logos (e.g., on the title slide) and other (trade-) marks (e.g., “Creative Commons” itself) remain with their respective holders.